Architectural Model Makers:RJ Models Turns Your Concept into a Masterpiece

During the last 26 years of our passionate journey as an architectural model maker, we seldom had much time to look back and re-collected the road that we walked.

A labor of love that architectural model maker all pride in being part of.

The exciting progress of turning concepts into reality, where we take part of making the impossible into possible.

We paused and looked back and saw many stories and overcome challenges in many architectural models that we made, a story of success that can be best told with video that speak thousands of words!

Chapter 1:

Introduction of RJ Models

C1.1-About RJ Models

As we look forward to the future, we put together here for two reasons:

To tell you our success story, and for us to cherish the memory as an architectural model maker, as each picture inside has a great story behind, a passion that started 26 years ago from a humble all hands on team, to a dream chain of offices and a brand name realized across the world.

RJ Models, located in China, Shen Zhen

RJ Models, located in China, Shen Zhen.

A passion shared by a few hundred architectural model makers of our team, dedicated to continue making the impossible possible, by adding the third dimension on concepts, the one that words and pictures cannot portray.

A great leader of architectural model makers has never been great without the support and dedication of a great team, a team that we a proud of.

Architectural Model Makers, Hakan Ozkan & Ray Cheung

Architectural Model Makers, Hakan Ozkan & Ray Cheung

These are the yesterday and today of this company.

A proud team of architectural model makers force fascinating craftsmanship, with a set bench mark that we always aim to break.

Team of RJ Models

Team of RJ Models

Chapter 2:

Master Planning Models

The master plan models, giving a focus on architectural scale and space setting between zones, presents the first impression of one urban planning and its design to the visitors.

The miniature city models should comply with what the clients want to present.

For instance, we will make the given urban in detail, such as blocks, landmarks, and key zones that the government values highly to display the grand blueprint of this miniature city planning.

C2.1- Light House Harbor Model, Dubai

Light House Harbor Model

Light House Harbor Model

  • Scale:  1:350
  • Size: 9000mm x 7500mm
  • Production Time: 2 months

There are more than 20 years’ cooperating experience of RJ Models with governments and companies in the Middle East, and this Light House Harbor Model impresses them once again for the excellence of craftsmanship.

CNC engraving machines, 3D printers and other digital devices have been adopted in this harbor model, not only greatly improves the efficiency, but also ensures the accuracy of each component.

Detail of Light House Harbor Model

Detail of Light House Harbor Model

Architectural model makers make thousands of scaled people for this model, with vary gestures.

Palm trees, coconut trees, and other plant that match the climatic conditions of the tropics are placed in the model for realism.

C2.2- Istanbul City Planning Model, Istanbul

Istanbul City Planning Model

Istanbul City Planning Model

  • Scale:  1:1000
  • Size:  12000mm x 9000mm
  • Production Time: 3 months

The Istanbul city model is the largest architectural model ever exhibited by the Turkish government in MIPIM, attracting the attention of many foreign media and winning many cooperation opportunities for Turkey.

RJ Models’ architectural model makers keeps in touch with clients and report regularly to ensure they are informed of the latest model progress.

The 96-square-meter urban model is divided into 32 blocks.

Istanbul City Planning Model

Istanbul City Planning Model

Different departments are responsible for different parts, which can effectively reduce the model production period

RJ Models also has a specialized logistics department; architectural model makers customize 10 model-specific aviation wooden boxes for this model to avoid any damage caused by poor packaging during transportation.

C2.3- Blue Water Ferris Wheels Model, Dubai

Blue Water Ferris Wheels Model

Blue Water Ferris Wheels Model

  • Scale: 1:150
  • Size: 11000mm x 7000mm
  • Production Time: 50 Days

More than 20 experienced architectural model makers engage in this project; they classify and re-draw the design drawings according to different components to ensure the accuracy.

It is not an easy task to make each of the 48 sightseeing cabins is horizontally suspended during the rotation process; RJ Models repeats the rotation test until the desired result is achieved.

Blue Water Ferris Wheels Model

Blue Water Ferris Wheels Model

The four giant columns not only ensure the stability of the Ferris Wheel in the dynamic, but also installed a number of wires in its limited space to connect 48 LED strips on the Ferris wheel.

C2.4- Dubai Beach Model, Dubai

Dubai Beach Model, Dubai

Dubai Beach Model, Dubai

  • Scale: 1:400
  • Sizes: 4500mm x 3000mm
  • Production Time: 40 Days

This Beach Project is an enormous mixed-use development in Dubai, which is dedicating to create a world-class vocational destination.

RJ Models employs various materials, including resin ABS, acrylic and wood, to create this beach model as it consists with a great many landscapes, cruise ship port, marina, and landmark buildings, etc.

Dubai Beach Model, Dubai

Dubai Beach Model, Dubai

Experienced architectural model makers also add a little altitude to the beach and make it slightly higher than the sea level to avoid the entire model bland and flat.

Since the water occupies a large proportion of this model, architectural model makers use lots of advanced technologies and equipment to simulate the texture and depth of ocean.

C2.5- Saigon Port Model, Saigon

Saigon Port Model

Saigon Port Model

  • Scale: 1:500
  • Size: 1500mm x 1200mm
  • Production Time: 20 Days
  • Clients : SOM

This is another successive cooperation between RJ Models and SOM, which is the world leading architectural design firm.

In order to fully present the topographic features of the whole region and sufficiently express the details of the port, experienced architectural model makers use 1:500 scale to illustrate this area.

High-rise buildings along the coast are made of white acrylic boards and the facades of them are craved by CNC machines to achieve the high standard precision.

In addition, architectural model makers glaze the water area and the reflection of the buildings just like the real scene.

C2.6-Shekou Master Planning Model, Shenzhen-SOM

Shekou Master Planning Model, Shenzhen

Shekou Master Planning Model, Shenzhen

  • Scale: 1:2000
  • Size: 1200mm x 800mm
  • Production Time:  15 Days

With the location advantage, the new Shekou District, which includes a large number of inward investment joint ventures, will become a new growth point in Shenzhen in the future.

The main part of the newly planned Shekou District is made of white plastic blocks, and the basic shape of the surrounding buildings is shown in grey plastic material, creating a contrast between them.

To avoid the model being too stuffy, the architectural model makers choose high-saturation green and blue to spray the vegetation and ocean areas.

CNC engraving machines and laser cutting machines are used to make the main structures and components for accuracy and efficiency.

C2.7-Red See Island, Caribbean, Parsons.

Red See Island, Caribbean, Parsons.

Red See Island, Caribbean, Parsons.

  • Scale: 1:2500
  • Size: 2200mm x 1200mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days

This island master planning model provides a great perspective on the amazing landscape of the island, playing a significant role in attracting potential investments.

In order to meet the clients’ demands of creating an authentic view of the landscape, as well as to duplicate the Caribbean Sea, the professional model base production team spend several weeks restore the topography of the sea.

Light and dark blue are used to represent the different depth of the ocean.

In addition, pre-made entourage elements such as sailboats, wharfs, and cruises are added to bring this masterplan model to reality.

C2.8- Kucuk Cekmece, Turkey

Kucuk Cekmece, Turkey

Kucuk Cekmece, Turkey

  • Scale: 1:1500
  • Size: 1800mm x 1200mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: SPDO

Kucuk Cekmece is a famous tourism city in Turkey and tens of thousands of people go there for vacation every year.

To fulfil the needs of development and improve the city’s carrying capacity, a new city plan is made, and RJ Models is appointed to visualize the design.

Seasoned architectural model makers map the topography first and divide the model into several parts according to different regions, and then assign it to different departments for better efficiency.

The gray building blends well with the sandy environment, but strongly contrasts with the center white building, which ingeniously indicates the important planning and development zone.

Chapter 3:

Office Models

Office building models have been widely appreciated by clients, especially for its effective visual impact. Once complete, they accentuate the designs of the building and thus often attract more business opportunities.

These models are usually taller than men height and often create strong eye-catching visual impacts.

With the passion and ambition to always excel, RJ Models has been undertaking office building and landmark architecture model making projects in all regions. Many globally-recognized office building models were created by RJ Models.

C3.2- Hudson Yards, New York

Hudson Yards, New York

Hudson Yards, New York

  • Scale: 1:300
  • Sizes: 2000mm x 1600mm
  • Production Time: 21 Days

The developer of this Hudson Yards is Related Companies, which is one of the most prominent privately-owned real estate firms in the United States and has fully experience in virtually every aspect of development, acquisitions, and management, finance, marketing and sales.

Hudson Yards has been isolated for decades by a massive, open rail yard and is transforming into one of the New York City’s most convenient neighborhoods with the historic introduction of new mass transit into the neighborhood.

This area is changing the look of New York and will impress the worldwide investors and viewers.

The unprecedented and ongoing investment marks Hudson Yards as the nation’s largest development, and one of the most complex construction projects in the history of New York City.

The project is jointly designed by KPF, SOM, Elkus Manfredi Architects and other world leading architects and designers because of its immense space and large volume.

RJ Models has cooperated with those mentioned world-famous architects and designers for a number of times and won their full trust with the superior technical level and considerate service.

Hudson Yards, New York

Hudson Yards, New York

Architectural model makers exquisitely made each tiny part of each building on this new 28-acre site.

Anchoring the southern corner of the site and straddling the famed High Line, the Class-A office tower, 10 Hudson Yards features a soaring atrium and floor-to-ceiling glass in a column-free space and is designed to accommodate the modern high-density office environment.

The tallest tower in the development, 30 Hudson Yards, will be home to the highest outdoor observation deck in New York City, and global media and entertainment company.

Professional architectural model makers use highly transparent organic glass to make the façade of these Mies van der Rohe style skyscraper.

Clad in limestone and glass, the building’s facade unifies the variety of programmatic elements stacked within.

With laser cutting equipment, architectural model makers are able to reproduce extremely accurate, very fine detail; even for the tiny part in the whole model, they can still show windows, roof shapes, textures and accurate coloring, which really brings the architecture to life.

For those curved glass façade, architectural model makers use 3D printing technology in addition to CNC engraving, to more accurately crave each part and illustrate the design concept.

In order to make the buildings in the Hudson Yards model more resemble the real scene, various glass materials are used, including brown, mirrored, dark gray, carved and other kinds of glass.

For the other buildings in this model, but are not belongs to the Hudson Yards, are demonstrated by grey blocks, contrasting strongly with the central super high-rise buildings.

From the beginning, RJ Models has kept a close communication with numerous designers and clients.

On the one hand, architectural model makers can fully understand the design intent, and change the model making process timely according to the designer’s adjustment; on the other hand, each side can fully aware of the project process and ensure the model complete time is in accordance with their requirements.

C3.3- New York Swiss Re Tower London

The delicate and exquisite model of The Gherkin

The delicate and exquisite model of The Gherkin

  • Scale: 1:100
  • Sizes: 1200mm x 1200mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: Foster + Partners

Located on the old site of the Baltic Exchange, Swiss Reinsurance Tower, which is also known as the 30 St Mary Axe or the Gherkin, is the London’s first ecological tall building and an instantly recognizable addition to the city’s skyline.

The Swiss Re Tower is designed by RJ Models’ regular customer Foster + Partners, a world-leading architectural company dedicated to providing high-tech and energy-efficient buildings.

Forty-one stores high, it provides 46,400 square meters net of office space together with an arcade of shops and cafés accessed from a newly created piazza.

Generated by a circular plan, with a radial geometry, the building widens in profile as it rises and tapers towards its apex; this distinctive form responds to the constraints of the site: the building appears slender than a rectangular block of equivalent size and the slimming of its profile towards the base maximizes the public realm at street level.

Environmentally, its profile reduces wind deflections compared with a rectilinear tower of similar size, helping to maintain a comfortable environment at ground level, and creates external pressure differentials that are exploited to drive a unique system of natural ventilation.

A Comparison between the Drawings, Model, and the Actual Building

A Comparison between the Drawings, Model, and the Actual Building

The Swiss Re Tower was even printed on the poster promoting London’s bid to host the Olympic Games as the evidence that London possessed the expertise and panache to handle the risk involved in hosting an Olympic Games.

Architectural model makers from RJ Models use double-skin glass as the façade of the tower model to mimic the unique curtain wall, which combines two systems.

For most of its circumference on any office floor, the building is encased by an exterior curtain wall of clear diamond-shaped double-glazed panels as well as an interior curtain wall of rectangular single-glazed panels fitted with blinds.

CNC engraving and 3d printing machines are used during the façade making process for a higher-level accuracy and efficiency; after each tiny triangular glass sheet is engraved according to the 3D drawings, architectural model makers manually bond each piece to the stanchion.

The tower’s diagonally braced structure allows column-free floor space and a fully glazed facade, which opens up the building to light and views; atria between the radiating fingers of each floor link vertically to form a series of informal break-out spaces that spiral up the building.

Detail of the Building Model

Detail of the Building Model

This kind of column-free structure makes a great challenge for architectural model makers, since the traditional materials used in architectural models are hard to achieve the requirements of stiffness and hardness of support.

Despite the façade of the tower is faithfully restored, the interior of the model is also elaborately and meticulously presented, and viewers can see the arrangement of each layer through the outer glass curtain wall.

In order to deliver the 1.8-meter building model to the UK intact, RJ Models’ transportation department workers customize an aviation wooden box and lay a large amount of foam inside, meanwhile use several ropes to fasten it.

C3.4- CRC City Commercial Zone, Shen Zhen

CRC City Commercial Zone, Shen Zhen

CRC City Commercial Zone, Shen Zhen

  • Scale: 1:200
  • Sizes: 7000mm x 2200mm
  • Production Time: 45 Days

Located at the heart of the Shenzhen High-Tech Industrial Park, the CRC commercial zone is designed by Foster + Partnership.

Foster + Partners is a global studio for sustainable architecture, urbanism and design, founded by Norman Foster in 1967 and since then, the team has established an international practice with a worldwide reputation; with offices across the globe, they work as a single studio that is both ethnically and culturally diverse.

The architectural models of most of the Foster + Partners designed projects are made by RJ Models, not only including the official buildings, but also have master planning model, interior design model and villa model.

Designers’ vision for the CRC master plan is for a timeless development that establishes a new landmark in this prominent location and a new benchmark for sustainable architecture in the city.

The design follows the master plan guidelines to create an integrated new part of Shenzhen’s vibrant mixed-use community, bringing together offices, a hotel and a dynamic public realm, animated by shops, restaurants and a range of new civic spaces.

The project aims to create a business community that is both indicative and influential in China and the six towers are scattered arranged in the site, which outlines a brand-new city skyline.

With the international and forward-looking design concept, the design of those high-rise official buildings has realized the organic integration of architecture, technology, geography and space, and has sequentially organized environmental conditions such as lighting, heat dissipation, heat preservation, radiation and fresh air and provides a comfortable working environment for each user.

CRC City Commercial Zone, Shen Zhen

CRC City Commercial Zone, Shen Zhen

Architectural model makers from RJ Models use the 1:200 scales to make the entire model, which can both illustrate the whole situation of the new planning area and present fine enough details of each building.

The lighting system of the project is designed by lighting engineers from Tillotson Design Associates, is a WBE lighting design consultancy founded in 2004, which is based in New York City and has a diverse staff with backgrounds in architecture, interior design, and theater, including several LEED accredited professionals.

They use fabulous light strips to decorate those buildings and create an incredible luxurious feeling for this site.

RJ Models also has specialized lighting department which is responsible for assembling lights in the master planning and architectural model.

In this project, in addition, to obtain enough and detailed design drawings from the design company, architectural model makers also draw separate circuit drawings for each building and landscape to ensure the lighting system of each part can be controlled independently by smart devices when displayed.

Since the location of this project and the factory of RJ Models are the same, both in Shenzhen, a lot of transportation time and cost are saved; once the model is finished, transportation team can truck it directly to the exhibition site, without the need to transfer by air.

Architectural model makers install hidden warm yellow strip lights at the bottom of the booth, corresponding to the landscape and street lights in the CRC master plan model.

C3.5- Victoria Dockside, Hong Kong

Victoria Dockside, Hong Kong

Victoria Dockside, Hong Kong

  • Scale: 1:400
  • Sizes: 1900mm x 1400mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days

Located at the tip of Kowloon Peninsula, the remained Victoria Dockside is a vibrant, mixed-use development at the heart of Hong Kong’s Victoria Harbor.

The Hong Kong government has gathered more than 100 artists and consultants from all over the world to design an international landmark for Hong Kong, not only bring art to the public but also encourage the rushing residents to slow down and understand the nature.

The design is eventually led by KPF architects, who has designed the famous Manhattan Hudson Yards and the models of Hudson Yards were also made by RJ Models.

The new art and design district knits hotel, office, and cultural components with outdoor public space and gardens, reactivating the waterfront public realm and the architectural diversity of the site emulates the varied program elements, while the use of stone, glass, and metal finishes provide a rich materiality.

In addition to the master planning of the Victoria Dockside, KPF also in responsible for the design of the super high rising building in this site.

This 66-story commercial office building is Victoria Dockside’s first open building and combines art, culture and office functions.

The building strengthens Hong Kong’s skyline and uses exquisite Portuguese limestone and bronze as the façade to pay tribute to the historic Kowloon Peninsula.

Countering the high-rise building’s upward expression, a remodeled, mid-rise structure expresses undulating, horizontal ribbons along its façade, generating texture and balcony spaces.

A number of the world’s pre-eminent interior designers each leads to separate major floors, resulting in a diverse collection of specific environments and held within a unified exterior by KPF.

The panoramic glazing allows people to fully appreciate the magnificent scenery of Victoria Harbor, while the limestone ribs on the façade emphasize the vertical lines of the building; therefore, from different locations, viewers can see different pictures and experience Victorian Harbor from multiple directions.

Architectural model makers use highly transparent glass to make the façade of the commercial complex and official building, while using specially sprayed gypsum strips to represent vertical ribs on the exterior of the building.

The low rising shopping complex has a total of 4,800 square meters of green walls, equivalent to 18 international standard tennis courts, a sunken amphitheater on the ground floor of the mall, surrounded by curved glass walls and a full glass corridor on the 8th floor overlooking the harbor.

These complicated and sophisticated arrangements pose a great challenge for the craftsmanship and delicacy of the architectural model makers; thanks to the abundant experiences in making architectural models, RJ Models’ model makers efficiently redraw the drawings needed to build the model and start the model making process.

Unlike the other master planning models, the architectural model makers use light blue resin material to represent the seawater in Victoria Harbor, instead of using a blue pad under the transparent glass plate; it can reduce the reflect degree of the material and creates a more uniform hue for the entire model.

C3.5- China Resources Headquarters, Shen Zhen

China Resources Headquarters, Shen Zhen

China Resources Headquarters, Shen Zhen

  • Scale: 1:200
  • Sizes: 800mm x 800mm
  • Production Time: 28 Days

The China Resources Headquarters tower is Shenzhen’s latest vertical icon, marking the latest node of cultural development with its tapered, diagrid form and diverse uses for its main client and the public at large.

Located on Shenzhen Bay in the western part of the city, this official building stands next to the Shenzhen Sports Complex in a new business district.

The tower’s external columns emphasize its verticality and tapered, sculptural form. At the lower section, the columns converge to create a series of entry portals while, at the top, they merge to a singular point.

This diagrid system not only strengthens the building’s structural integrity but also allows for column-free office interiors and an organizational structure that allows for smaller and more boutique office floor plates as the tower rises.

The tower is wrapped with 59 slender steel columns that are designed to “emphasize its verticality”; at the base and the upper levels of the tower these columns converge and cross to form a diagrid pattern – a diagonal grid similar to that used by Foster + Partners at London’s Gherkin, the model of which is also made by RJ Models.

China Resources Group commission Hassell to carry out the interior design for this new headquarter, hoping to show the group’s ambitions to the world and lead the public’s attention to Shenzhen, a mature and dynamic global trading hub.

Considering the shape of the conical spring shoot, KPF adopts a column-free circular slab design; the whole building is fixed with 56 outer steel columns and an internal reinforced concrete core. The bottom and upper areas of the tower are ribbed, and 56 pillars are gathered into 28 roots.

Although the design is very simple and straightforward, in the specific model making, numerous beam and column structures are constructed to fix the glass plate and the steel column to achieve the rigidity and hardness required for the support structure.

For the sake of expressing the exquisite structure of the headquarters, RJ Models also makes the top part of the tower with a large size in wooden material; the 28 thin sticks are attached to a weaved high-strength wire mesh and also merge to a singular point as the actual design, showing the delicacy of the architectural model.

In order to present the real scene of the headquarters in the future to the client, the architectural model makers intentionally move the completed architectural model to the outside and take the photos of the model in the background of the sky at different times of the day.

Architectural model makers also install lines of scaled trees along the road in the site, not only increasing the authenticity of the model but also serve as a foil to strength the gigantic of the China Resources Tower.

This exquisite model maintains the consistent production level of RJ Models, which not only makes the clients very satisfied, but also plays an important role in the exhibition; after the exhibition, it is kept in the lobby of the headquarters and everyone who walked into the headquarters could not help but stop and ad

Chapter 4:

Interiors Models

Interior models are essentially a spatial floor plan of an apartment, office, hotel or any structures with various functions.

In general, interior models are fabricated on the basis of interior design concept, sketches or other digital drawings like CAD files.

A high-quality interior model may feature appropriate space layout, befitting color scheme, lighting, well-arranged furniture and even few figures to mimic the scenes of life.

The Lighting system is essential as it can illuminate the entire floor of the interior model and therefore every piece of the interior design elements such as miniature furniture can be showed up.

C4.1- Galaxy Stadium, Macau

Galaxy Stadium, Macau

Galaxy Stadium, Macau

  • Scale: 1:75
  • Sizes: 1500m x 1500mm
  • Production Time:  30 Days

The Galaxy Stadium is one of the largest stadiums in Macau, which can accommodate more than 10,000 people at the same time.

Interior architectural model makers re-draw the technical drawings according to the information obtained from the designers to more efficiently complete the different parts of the stadium model and precisely assemble them.

Galaxy Stadium, Macau

Galaxy Stadium, Macau

RJ Models’ patience and fineness have been totally reflected in this model – tens of thousands of stadium seats are meticulously installed in the accurate position, showing the ultimate beauty.

For the truss structure on the roof of the stadium, it is made by a 3D printer and illustrating the exquisite mechanical design.

C4.2- Ping An Finance Center, Shen Zhen

Ping An Finance Center, Shen Zhen

Ping An Finance Center, Shen Zhen

  • Scale: 1:50
  • Sizes: 800mm x 900mm
  • Production Time:  20 Days

KPF’s design for the world’s tallest office building creates an iconic presence for Ping An.

The stone and glass tower rises from the site and the four facades are sheathed in chevron-shaped stone verticals that extend from the building’s base.

Stainless steel pipe, fair-faced concrete and transparent acrylic sheet are used by interior model makers to build the tremendous purely designed lobby and create a sense of ceremony for this landmark building.

Ping An Finance Center, Shen Zhen

Ping An Finance Center, Shen Zhen

Hundreds of scaled people have been put in the entrance with different gestures and clothes, illustrating the real-life scene vividly.

C4.3- Club House, Mumbai

Club House, Mumbai

Club House, Mumbai

  • Scale: 1:40
  • Sizes: 2800mm x 1500mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days

The Club House in Mumbai provides varieties of entertainments for residents and customers, thus interior model makers need to customize scaled entertainment facilities for this project.

Different from the master planning model or official building model, the interior model needs high accuracy and finesse for each tiny and diverse components are required, such as the deckchairs, vertical greenery landscapes and striped carpet.

Club House, Mumbai

Club House, Mumbai

A variety of different forms lights are installed in this interior model, not only creating a fabulous scene but also illustrate the noble and luxurious feeling through this well-designed lighting system.

C4.4- The Reach, Hong Kong

The Reach, Hong Kong

The Reach, Hong Kong

  • Scale: 1:5
  • Sizes: 8000mm x 5000mm
  • Production Time: 60 Days
  • Client: HLD

The design of the Reach combines modern aesthetics from masters of various fields to create the first extensive landmark residential development.

The interior model is made in an amazing 1:5 scale, which is big enough to show every detail among the residents and most of the components are needed to be specially customized since the majority of model scale in the market is large than 1:50.

RJ Models’ interior model making team also contacts with Takeshi Konishi in particular, who designed this understated luxury, to precisely restore the lighting atmosphere.

The scaled down furnishings are made in the same material with the real ones to looks more authentic.

C4.5- Office Design Model

Office Design Model

Office Design Model

  • Scale: 1:60
  • Sizes: 2000mm x 2000mm
  • Production Time:  28 Days

Located in the core area of Chengdu’s most prosperous financial street, this office building has nearly 1.3 million square feet of office space.

The interior model makers spend a lot of time and effort on making office desks, swivel chairs, computers and other office facilities, in addition to the basic architectural structures.

In order to show the texture and three-dimensionality of the model, RJ Models use the thick black acrylic plate to engrave the keyboard and the buttons on it, rather than just using stickers.

Through this delicate interior model, viewers can understand the office arrangement legibly.

Chapter 5:

Leisure & Sport

Generally, a stadium model consists of inside large flat areas and outside parts with certain en external design details.

Architectural blueprints, construction drawings and period photographs, if has, are indispensable the basic information to build stadium models.

1:150 and 1:200 are most commonly used scales to build stadium models as details like bustling bleacherites can be clearly shown to make the model look as life-like as possible.

Materials to make the stadium models can be varied, from frosted, translucent to completely clear. It depends on what features and effect the client want to present.

C5.1 – Tokyo National Stadium, Tokyo.

Tokyo National Stadium, Tokyo

Tokyo National Stadium, Tokyo

  • Scale: 1:1000
  • Sizes: 1100mm x 750mm
  • Client: Zaha Hadid

The stadium shape is like a baseball cap, showing a very distinct texture, and the main structure joint is complemented by a lattice-shaped shell, which is streamlined overall.

The stadium has several oval windows that look inside as if they were a spaceship.

This Zaha-style parametric design makes the model manufacturing extremely difficult.

From the initial drawing of the stadium model to the subsequent production and assembly of the model components, non-traditional techniques and tools are needed to accurately restore the design concept.

Experienced sport model makers use the 3D printer to manufacture the outer casing integrated.

C5.2 – MOE Lifestyle Theme Park, Dubai

MOE Lifestyle Theme Park, Dubai

MOE Lifestyle Theme Park, Dubai

  • Scale: 1:250
  • Sizes:  1900mm x 1200mm
  • Production Time: 20 Days
  • Client: KPF

To meet the diverse needs of residents and visitors and provide a vibrant cultural and retail center for the Dubai, Benoy is responsible for the design of a new theme park.

RJ Models’ model making team accurately demonstrates the designer’s desire to create a lightweight “floating box” design concept by using a variety of innovative techniques and materials.

MOE Lifestyle Theme Park, Dubai

MOE Lifestyle Theme Park, Dubai

Architectural model makers use the wooden material such as wooden sticks and wooden boards to make the internal structure of the model and use the white PVC board to present the façade.

The ribbon-like design on the façade is also accurately reflected in the theme park model through the control of parametric software.

C5.3 – Mohammed Bin Rashid Stadium, Dubai, RTA

Mohammed Bin Rashid Stadium, Dubai, RTA

Mohammed Bin Rashid Stadium, Dubai, RTA

  • Scale: 1:250
  • Sizes: 1700mm 1650mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: KPF

This multi-purpose stadium is going to become the largest stadium in the UAE; the center of which is like a “super bowl”.

The “Super Bowl” is lifted off the ground and below it is a large pool that forms a natural heat sink facility.

The façade of the elliptical flat stadium is made of prefabricated PVC panels, which are carved, twisted and hollowed out, like a woven mesh, and accurately reflects the concept of sustainable development in the design.

Stadium model makers also install blue lights inside the model and covered with frosted glass, conveying an implicit and low-key luxury.

C5.4 – Abu Dhabi Stadium, Abu Dhabi.

Abu Dhabi Stadium, Abu Dhabi.

Abu Dhabi Stadium, Abu Dhabi.

  • Scale: 1:150
  • Sizes: 2200mm x 1500mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: Arup

Stadium model makers use the silver material to make the stands on both sides and the surrounding environments, while the white pre-stressed plastic plates are used to make the dome.

The white dome part can be moved, which greatly facilitates the viewers to understand the overall shape and internal structure of the stadium;

Tens of thousands of different color grandstand seats are randomly placed in the venue according to the drawings, creating the lively and bustling scene when holding the competition; and special lights are installed around the stadium to mimic the floodlights of the stadium.

C5.5 – Bahcesehir Stadium, Istanbul.

Bahcesehir Stadium, Istanbul.

Bahcesehir Stadium, Istanbul.

  • Scale: 1:500
  • Sizes: 2200mm x 1500mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: KPF

The Bahcesehir Stadium is a full-seat football stadium with a field track.

Stadium model makers research the surrounding environment and design drawings carefully before the model manufacturing process.

They not only meticulously make the main stadium, but also portray the large-scale ambient environments with the same level of sophistication.

LED lights are installed in the stadium and can be controlled by an intelligent facility to show diverse colors according to different needs.

To show the fineness of the stadium and its supporting facilities, highly standardized scaled football fields are orderly arranged in the site.

Chapter 6:

Retail

Shopping Mall Model aims to demonstrate design, accesses, layout, location, landscape and other aspects of a shopping mall.

The mall, usually being a part of a complex of offices and residential apartments, is the center of the whole piece of land.

To better serve developers’ needs of illustration, the shopping mall model provides a clear picture showing different areas with corresponding functions, such as shopping, food, entertainment and parking.

C6.1- SuZhou Center, SuZhou.

SuZhou Center, SuZhou.

SuZhou Center, SuZhou.

  • Scale: 1:150
  • Sizes: 2000mm x 1200mm
  • Production Time: 45 Days

The “Future Wing” roof of the Suzhou Center has a deformed surface, which is made of steel mesh that is not coplanar and is covered with a glass curtain wall.

Retail model makers put a lot of efforts in making the delicate model roof, which structure has an ultra-long design and spans multiple support monomers, and the design accuracy of the profiled surface is high.

SuZhou Center, SuZhou.

SuZhou Center, SuZhou.

Thousands of weeny white irregular quadrilateral ceramics are used to make the surface and illumined by a mass of tiny LED lights installed on its edge.

C6.2– Spring City 66, Kumnming Zhou Center, SuZhou.

Spring City 66, Kumnming Zhou Center, SuZhou

Spring City 66, Kumnming Zhou Center, SuZhou

  • Scale: 1:150
  • Sizes:  3500mm x 3000mm
  • Production Time: 40 Days
  • Client: KPF

The Spring City 66 is used a “connected design” to match the mountains among the city; the landscaped promenade connects two high-rise building and recalls the region’s lush valleys.

Retail model makers incorporate a mixture of landscape, lawn, and natural plantings in the model to echo Kunming’s favorable and pleasurable climate.

Spring City 66, Kumnming Zhou Center, SuZhou

Spring City 66, Kumnming Zhou Center, SuZhou

In addition to the abundant greeneries and vegetables, a variety of model vehicles are put on the roads and mass scaled people are installed in each layer of the retail center, creating very rich life scenes in the model.

The different types of lights illumine a three-dimensional lighting effect for each viewer.

C6.3– Parc Central , GuangZhou.

Parc Central , GuangZhou.

Parc Central , GuangZhou.

  • Scale: 1:200
  • Sizes: 1600mm x 1500mm
  • Production Time: 35 Days
  • Client: Benoy

The design concept of Parc Central in Guangzhou comes from the carp, which in Chinese culture symbolizes peace, harmony and wealth.

The stainless-steel structure roof of the retail model is produced by the 3D printer, since the experienced model makers choose steel to make the mesh, which can restore the strong texture of the real architecture but, unfortunately, hard to be carved by hand.

Golden lights are assembled on the roof and blue lights are fitted under the waterscape, conveying a classical sumptuous feeling.

Retail model makers also install a large number of subtropical plants in the site to respond to the designer’s civic design concept.

C6.4- ShenZhen Bay Mall, ShenZhen.

ShenZhen Bay Mall, ShenZhen

ShenZhen Bay Mall, ShenZhen

Scale: 1:200     Sizes: 2000mm x 2000mm     Production Time: 40 Days       Client: KPF

The Shenzhen Bay Mall is going to be a new citizen core area and commercial center; the design team elaborately designed a large number of green landscapes and annulus pavilion inspired by the floating island to show the delightful natural environment.

Retail model makers use the 3D printer to make the façade of the central annular pavilion in an integrative molding way and use laser cut to make the façade for other buildings, keeping the edge of each component tidy and neat.

Different color lights are installed in different architectures to indicate the distinct functions.

C6.5 – Dubai Airport Shopping Mall, Dubai.

Dubai Airport Shopping Mall, Dubai.

Dubai Airport Shopping Mall, Dubai.

  • Scale: 1:50
  • Sizes: 2500mm x 3000mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days

Dubai Airport can handle over 300 flights a day, and the huge traffic has made the Dubai airport shopping mall one of the busiest malls in the world.

Besides luxury stores and gourmet restaurants, there still have cinemas, musical fountains and other unique facilities.

In order to show such rich scenes and diverse facilities, the retail model makers install a large number of model people with different postures to echo the high density of the airport crowd.

In addition, the same proportion of baggage conveyors and light rail vehicles have been carefully crafted to show the characteristics of the airport shopping mall.

Chapter 7:

Transport & Civil

The Airport model that assists the architectural designers to present their airport design in 3D can be used for airport architecture competition, design discussion, exhibitions, and tendering etc.

For the newcomers of one city, the airport is almost their first impression of that city. Because, rather than the most famous scenic spots, airports, terminal and stations may be their first contact with the city.

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

C7.1 – Beijing Airport T4

Beijing Airport T4

Beijing Airport T4

  • Scale: 1:60
  • Sizes: 3500mm x 2000mm
  • Production Time: 22 Days
  • Client: Zaha Hadid

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

Beijing Airport T4

Beijing Airport T4

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

C7.2 – Istanbul International Airport, Istanbul

Istanbul International Airport, Istanbul

Istanbul International Airport, Istanbul

  • Scale: 1:1000
  • Sizes: 1100mm x 750mm
  • Client: Zaha Hadid

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

Istanbul International Airport, Istanbul

Istanbul International Airport, Istanbul

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

C7.3 – Beijing Airport T3, Beijing

Beijing Airport T3, Beijing

Beijing Airport T3, Beijing

  • Scale: 1:500
  • Sizes: 2000mm x 1500mm
  • Production Time: 21 Days
  • Client: Foster + Partners

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

Beijing Airport T3, Beijing

Beijing Airport T3, Beijing

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

C7.4 – Mexico Airport,Mexico

Mexico Airport,Mexico

Mexico Airport,Mexico

  • Scale: 1:1000
  • Sizes: 2500mmx 1100mm
  • Production Time: 28 Days
  • Client: SOM

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

Mexico Airport,Mexico

Mexico Airport,Mexico

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

C7.5 – Changi Airport T4

Mexico Airport,Mexico

Mexico Airport,Mexico

  • Scale: 1:50
  • Sizes: 3000mm x 1500mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: Benoy

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

Mexico Airport,Mexico

Mexico Airport,Mexico

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

C7.6 – Hong Kong Airport T2,Hong Kong

Hong Kong Airport T2,Hong Kong

Hong Kong Airport T2,Hong Kong

  • Scale: 1:125
  • Sizes: 2400mm x 750mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

Hong Kong Airport T2,Hong Kong

Hong Kong Airport T2,Hong Kong

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

C7.7 – Bake Shipyard,Azerbaijian1-500-1

Hong Kong Airport T2,Hong Kong

Bake Shipyard,Azerbaijian

  • Scale: 1:750
  • Sizes: 1100mm x 750mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

Hong Kong Airport T2,Hong Kong

Bake Shipyard,Azerbaijian

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

C7.8 – Kinmen CruiseTerminal,Taiwan

Kinmen CruiseTerminal, Taiwan

Kinmen CruiseTerminal, Taiwan

  • Scale: 1:300
  • Sizes: 2400mm x 1000mm
  • Client: TWA

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

Kinmen CruiseTerminal, Taiwan

Kinmen CruiseTerminal, Taiwan

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

C7.9 – Seaport , Dubai

Seaport ,Dubai

Seaport ,Dubai

  • Scale: 1:1000
  • Sizes: 1100mm x 750mm
  • Client: Zaha Hadid

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

Seaport ,Dubai

Seaport ,Dubai

Airport model terminal can be structured in different scale according to its various display purposes. When it displays the geographical location of the airport, the airport model scale is often from 1:1000-1:5000.

Chapter 8:

Residential Models

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

Residential building models can provide the potential housing buyer or investors a good understanding of the design by showing the road and path layout, entrance, building material and the living environment.

Therefore, it is a great tool for the real estate sales office for marketing.

C8.1 – The Opus, Hong Kong-Swire_Frank Gehry__1-100.jpg

The Opus, Hong Kong

The Opus, Hong Kong

  • Scale: 1:300
  • Sizes: 1200mm x 1150mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: Frank Gehry

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

The Opus, Hong Kong

The Opus, Hong Kong

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.2 – Omkar 1973, Mumbai

Omkar 1973, Mumbai

Omkar 1973, Mumbai

  • Scale: 1:75
  • Sizes: 2000mm x 6000mm
  • Production Time: 60 Days
  • Client: Foster + Partners

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

Omkar 1973, Mumbai

Omkar 1973, Mumbai

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.3 – Broadway_London_1-150 (1)

Broadway, London

Broadway, London

  • Scale: 1:150
  • Sizes: 1100mm x 750mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

Broadway, London

Broadway, London

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.4 – Chelsea Waterfront, London

Chelsea Waterfront, London

Chelsea Waterfront, London

  • Scale: 1:300
  • Sizes: 2000mm x 1250mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: Terry Farrell

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.5 – One Palm,Dubai

One Palm,Dubai

One Palm,Dubai

  • Scale: 1:100
  • Sizes: 1200mm x 1200mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: Omniyat

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.6 – Bvlgari Island, Dubai

Bvlgari Island, Dubai

Bvlgari Island, Dubai

  • Scale: 1:1000
  • Sizes: 1100mm x 750mm
  • Client: Zaha Hadid

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

Bvlgari Island, Dubai

Bvlgari Island, Dubai

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.7 – Esta Acibadem,Istanbul

Esta Acibadem,Istanbul

Esta Acibadem,Istanbul

  • Scale: 1:1000
  • Sizes: 1100mm x 750mm
  • Client: Zaha Hadid

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

Esta Acibadem,Istanbul

Esta Acibadem,Istanbul

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.8 – Aricilar ,Istanbul- Artas

Aricilar ,Istanbul

Aricilar ,Istanbul

  • Scale: 1:1000
  • Sizes: 1100mm x 750mm
  • Client: Artas

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

Aricilar ,Istanbul

Aricilar ,Istanbul

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.9 – EI Nozha, Cairo

EI Nozha, Cairo

EI Nozha, Cairo

  • Scale: 1:100
  • Sizes: 2100mm x 2200mm
  • Production Time: 40 Days

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

EI Nozha, Cairo

EI Nozha, Cairo

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.10 – Park Crescent, London

Park Crescent, London

Park Crescent, London

  • Scale: 1:1000
  • Sizes: 1100mm x 750mm
  • Client: Zaha Hadid

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

Park Crescent, London

Park Crescent, London

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.11 – Residential in Echelon Seaport Boston-KPF

Residential in Echelon Seaport Boston

Residential in Echelon Seaport Boston

  • Scale: 1:1000
  • Sizes: 1100mm x 750mm
  • Client: KPF

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.12 – Residential, Abu Dhabi

Residential, Abu Dhabi

Residential, Abu Dhabi

  • Scale: 1:300
  • Sizes: 2000mm x 1750mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: Richard Rogers

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.12 – CR City Phase 3, Shenzhen

CR City Phase 3, Shenzhen-China Resource

CR City Phase 3, Shenzhen-China Resource

  • Scale: 1:150
  • Sizes: 3500mm x 1500mm
  • Client: Chia Resource

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

CR City Phase 3, Shenzhen-China Resource

CR City Phase 3, Shenzhen-China Resource

Residential building models are effective method to chase the pre-construction approval, building project phasing, design presentation and client approval.

C8.13 – The Reach, Hong Kong

The Reach, Hong Kong

The Reach, Hong Kong

  • Scale: 1:1000
  • Sizes: 1100mm x 750mm
  • Client: HLD
The Reach, Hong Kong

The Reach, Hong Kong

Chapter 9:

Hotel Model

Hotel Model can help the investor to understand and attract their interest in investing in a development project.

Generally speaking, a hotel is a place that provides lodging as while as nourishment for its guests.

A hotel mainly provides tourists with accommodation and services that fulfill their daily needs.

It also includes food and drinks, games, entertainment, shops, business centers, banquet and conference facilities and so on.

Hotel Model is just like a miniature version of this kind of building.

C9.1- Lisboa Palace, MAcau.

Lisboa Palace, Macau.

Lisboa Palace, Macau.

  • Scale: 1:250
  • Sizes: 2000mm x 1500mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: WATG

Lisboa Palace on Macau’s Cotai Strip is inspired by the Palace of Versailles and features an octagonal base with four towers and formal landscaping.

It is designed by WATG, which is the world’s leading design consultant in the hospitality industry with over 70 years of design expertise.

Architectural model makers customize the scaled components corresponding the French neoclassical features among the hotel.

RJ Models elaborately hand carves each part of the hotel, even the tiny sculpture on the eave and the complicated carvings on the mountain wall can all be seen distinctly.

C9.2- Peninsula Hotel, Istanbul

Peninsula Hotel, Istanbul

Peninsula Hotel, Istanbul

  • Scale: 1:200
  • Client: KPF

The Peninsula Hotel has a sweeping view of the Bosphorus, as well as a view across to Istanbul’s famous old town.

Architectural model makers use the CNC engraving machine to make the corridors, which consists of continuous arches.

Peninsula Hotel, Istanbul

Peninsula Hotel, Istanbul

A large number of scaled trees are planted along the road and on the roof of the hotel; hotel model makers manually install them one by one to guarantee the accuracy of each plant.

To give the viewers an intuitive feeling of the hotel in the future, hotel model makers respectively take the pictures of the model with a black board and a real sky.

C9.3- Brand Lisboa Casino, Macau

Brand Lisboa Casino, Macau

Brand Lisboa Casino, Macau

  • Scale: 1:200
  • Sizes: 1800mm x 1800mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: KPF

The Grand Lisboa Casino, which is designed by DLN, has become a landmark in Macau and the most distinctive part of its skyline.

The rich and sensual form of the tower embodies the daring and flamboyant exuberance of modern Macau.

Detail of Brand Lisboa Casino, Macau

Detail of Brand Lisboa Casino, Macau

The hotel model makers use the very thin brass plate as the facade of the hotel model and employ milling machine to engrave a linear pattern on the stiff plate.

When the lights inside the model are lit, warm yellow lights leak from those linear hollow place and creating a fabulous and luxurious feeling for the hotel.

C9.4- Imperial Palace,  Saipan

Imperial Palace, Saipan

Imperial Palace, Saipan

  • Scale: 1:50
  • Sizes: 1900mm x 850mm
  • Production Time: 40 Days
  • Client: Stlliman

The ornate Imperial Palace in SaiPan is designed by Paul Steelman, who is recognized as the designer of global entertainment, hospitality, and gaming architecture.

The scale of this luxurious hotel model is 1:50, giving hotel model makers plenty room to depict the tiny details and interior designs of the palace.

Detail of Imperial Palace,  Saipan

Detail of Imperial Palace,  Saipan

Experienced hotel model makers ultimately present the limestone façade by dying and carving out the specific pattern on the gypsum, after many insatiably and undogmatically experiments.

What is also worth noting is the finely carved interior decorations; no matter the delicate wall lamp or the elegant banisters all shows the meticulous craftsmanship.

C9.5- Morpheus Hotel, Macau

Morpheus Hotel, Macau

Morpheus Hotel, Macau

  • Scale: 1:80
  • Sizes: 2300mm x 1700mm
  • Production Time: 30 Days
  • Client: Zaha Hadid

This pioneer hotel designed by Zaha Hadid brings a new definition and unique experience to the public area but creates a great challenge for the model making process.

The free-form high-level mesh structure and the omission of the usual support system require the hotel model makers to innovate and break through the original model making mode and method.

Morpheus Hotel, Macau

Morpheus Hotel, Macau

Hotel model makers use the innovative 3D printing technique and CNC machine to make different parts of the hotel.

The outer shell is integral-moulded, guaranteeing the stability and consistency of the hotel model.

Conclusion

Physical architectural models are powerful and irreplaceable tools to examine and express architectural designs as well as to fascinate the public during the exhibition.

As architectural models are varied and used for different propose, choosing the appropriate model type and scale, and materials to making the models are distinctly important

Relatively new and advanced model making techniques are coming out to enhance the function and aesthetics of architectural models.

Also, there is a great need to know how to maintain an architectural model to optimize the value-in-use.

The use of architectural model is at the peak of history and it will continue to develop.

Explore the role of architectural models will not only help the designers to present and communicate their design ideas, but also can bring a building, or a complex to life off the plan.