Professional Architectural Model Making:The Complete Guide
Model making is a skillful craftsmanship.
Architectural model making is an indispensable design tool for architecture students and architectural designer.
In fact, at present, architectural model making is not just a leisure activity that brings model making hobbyists a fun and rewarding experience, it is also a professional workmanship.
A convincing architectural model may comprehensively capture the excitement and essence of the designer’s vision.
On the contrary, an undesirable scale model may become a failing representation in presenting and communicating design ideas.
This guide has a wealth of valuable and practical architectural model making and fabrication tips.
This general advice may assist you in improving model making skills and avoiding common mistakes made by a newbie.
Each chapter looks at one or few principal areas of architectural model making process.
Tips of Before Making Architectural Model
The architectural model is seen as a bridge between a design idea and its realization.
When making architectural models, everyone has their own tricks and habits.
Learn from the previous model making experience and learn from others’ strong points are the key to success.
Architectural Model Making Project, Museum of the Future
On the basis of the rich experience of architectural model making, project presentation and exhibition, Chapter 1 provides a series of general model making suggestions which are more about ways of thinking.
This chapter does not go into specific details of architectural model making techniques and materials.
Instead, the following are some basic rules that will save you some of wasted time, cost and effort.
C1.1: Tip 1. Always Start by Thinking
Before commencing the architectural model making process, it is crucial to define the intent of the architectural model.
In other words, determine the purpose of making the model before constructing.
Architectural models serve various functions.
This mainly depends on the types of architectural models.
The conceptual architectural model may assist in exploring initial design ideas.
These models are relatively simple and easy to adjust as the design is progressed.
Architectural Model Making Project in Tokyo, Shibuya
Working architectural models may be required to demonstrate specification in architectural design, such as detailed building forms and materials.
Served as ideal communication tools, working models are usually made of higher quality materials and include more design detail.
Conceptual Model Making Project in China
Presentation architectural models are wildly used to help designers and clients, sometimes the public, to envisage the projects.
Also, presentation models are considered as ideal marketing tools for developers to attract potential purchaser and investors.
Therefore, these models are far more detailed with impressive displaying effects.
Think over what you want to represent and achieve, and what you expect the viewers to see and understand by looking at your architectural model.
C1.2: Tip 2. Make a detailed architectural model making plan
Completing an architectural model always take longer than you planned.
Very often it is one with skillful handicraft do not finish their architectural model on time.
That is mainly because they wanted to show too much and have spent lots of time on some specific parts.
And other architectural model elements have to be rushed or haven’t got done at all.
Generally, if you want to incorporate more details in your architectural model, more time and effort you have to spend.
Presentation Architectural Model Making Project in France
If the time is limited and urgent, do not try to present all the detail of your design.
Think comprehensively about the architectural model making time, material and tools available to you.
Just like every construction project needs a comprehensive construction scheme and working schedule，you‘d better make a detailed plan regarding material and size of the model components， as well as the model making order.
Try to be realistic and looking for the balance to optimally realized overall architectural project presentation.
C1.3: Tip 3. Determine Appropriate Architectural Model Scale
Scale is one of the predominant factors to fabricate a successful architectural model.
Architectural model scale mostly depends on what you plan to showcase, and how big an area you need to model.
The smaller the scale, the more difficult it is to depict the project’s details accurately.
For example, 1:25 scale is ideal for an interior architectural model making.
With this scale, the viewers are able to see the detailed components of the room.
Interior Model Making Project in India, Mumbai
Even the soft furniture such as armchairs, sofas can be seen from an exquisite interior architectural model.
Understanding architectural models scale clearly will enable you to work out which route to go down for your particular project.
It is important to decide what scale that your architectural model would be best suited to.
Having a good thinking about the scale after considering what you want to illustrate, the architectural model making time and budget, and material and techniques available.
C1.4: Tip 4. Be Selective about the Detail
Attention to detail is a must in architectural model making process.
Nevertheless, it is highly unlikely to complete an architectural model that with all the details that you want to convey in your project presentation.
Mainly because the time and budget you have do not allow you to do so.
Figure out what you want to highlight in your architectural model instead of making an exact replica of the design.
A Monochrome Massing Model Project in China
For example, you want to showcase a new proposed building in a sensitive area.
In this case, a monochrome massing architectural model will be an ideal choice.
The recommendation here illustrates the surroundings using blocks with basic forms and similar looking materials.
Therefore, the viewers will be able to get an instant and straightforward understanding of your architectural design project.
Remember it is not always necessary to produce the entire structure and context.
Sometimes a well-selected section through the building can bring unexpected effects.
C1.5: Tip 5. Pay attention to design drawings.
Architectural plan drawings are commonly used as the base of the architectural model to ease the model making procedure.
Print architectural plans and have some copies, in case the used one being destroyed by accident.
Other architectural drawings and digital models are equally important as they are the ‘foundation’ of your architectural model.
Architectural Model Drawing for Hotel Model in Macao
Ensure you are familiar with the design and modeling software and have sufficient knowledge of architecture.
This helps you to transit abstract architectural design ideas into dramatic physical exhibits.
It’s better if you can ensure the model making drawings you are using is the final design. In most cases, the occasional design changes may affect the model making progress. And therefore influence the quality of the architectural model.
If the change of the design is significant，for example， the building structure has been modified，you have to rebuild the related parts of the model. And yes， the model making progress and quality will be affected.
C1.6: Tip 6. Make an ideal working space for yourself
Architectural model making process may easily get messy and confusing very quickly if you do not have enough working space.
Make sure you have a well-organized and spacious working environment.
One recommendation is setting up different working areas.
For instance, having architectural model cutting area separated from assembling and post-processing area.
This will bring you a pleasant model making experience and will prevent you from wasting time and efforts.
In addition, having a good lighting condition is important as well.
In most cases, you need to cut model architectural model making with scalpels and craft knife very often.
And it will be better if you have several luminous lights passes.
It will help you to get a cleaner cut and you will be less likely to cut your finger or hurt your eyes.
C1.7: Tip 7. Get organized
The organization of architectural model making components, no matter unfinished, completed or purchased, is necessary.
In particular, when the architectural model you plan to make has a huge size but need to be highly detailed.
Arranged every piece in order is a useful trick.
You will have hundreds of model components to assemble in the later architectural model making stage.
C1. 8：Tip 8. Wash your hands from time to time
Architectural modeling specialists suggested that washing hands every 30 minutes is a good model making habit.
Wash your hands frequently may prevent you from being insanely frustrating once you find your left fingerprints or spots on the models. (Image from internet)
Especially, when you are working with white and clean architectural model making materials.
Dirt, oil and glue on your fingers will smudge your model.
1.9：Tip9. Show the tangibility and intimacy of the architectural model
In general, architectural drawings are lack of tangibility and intimacy that physical architectural model has.
Make sure the architectural model you build can provide the viewers with a deep understanding and help to increase spatial awareness.
Choose the right methods, such as add special lighting effects and lifting functions will enable you to achieve the best architectural model displaying effect.
C1.10: Tip 10. Stop, check and ask for advice
Sometimes, you may easily go too far into making unnecessary and superfluous detail, or the completed components are over structured.
Think over the big picture before you moving on to the next model making stage.
Take a look at your underway model from all angles.
And stop to check back and forth between your architectural model and original blueprints.
In addition, do not hesitate to ask for advice and help, whether from experts, colleagues or friends.
Listen to their suggestions and criticisms and you may generate alternate ideas and creative views.
Should you have any query of the architectural model making, we also have many experts, who are willing to answer you, welcome to send the email to us: email@example.com
Tips of Choosing the Architectural Model Making Material
The architectural scale model is supposed to be more informative than the design itself in illustrating the central design ideas and intentions.
In the past, architectural scale models were mostly made out of paper, foam, wood and clay.
At present, the architectural model markets provides a wide range of material options to enrich the display effects of architectural model making.
High quality architectural model material can be made a high quality architectural scale model
Combining with practical architectural model making experience, Chapter 2 encompasses a series of tips that help you to choose the right model making materials.
These architectural model making tips can go quite well beyond for the architectural students and model making hobbyist.
And it may bring your architectural model making skills be more professional.
C2.1: Choose the Most Appropriate Materials
Select the right architectural model making material can assist you to complete a satisfyingly impressive and convincing architectural model.
Architectural model material selection depends on various factors.
In general, architectural presentation models are mostly made of stable and durable architectural model making materials.
They need to be robust and the color of the model won’t fade easily.
That’s because these kinds of models will be exhibited for a related long time, and will be exposed to sunlight and dust.
Nowadays, people prefer to the durable and high quality model making material.
It will be better if the architectural model making material you chose is easy to work with.
Besides, consider your model making budget and time limits is necessary as well.
The basic rule of choosing the right architectural model making material is to have a clear idea of what you want to present.
You can choose 2 – 3 types of modeling materials for model making, but do not use too many kinds of architectural model making materials or your model will look tacky and unconvincing.
The following are some basic references for anyone who wants to know how some frequently-used model making materials dictate the design.
C2.2.1: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
ABS is one of the commonly-used modeling materials that lots of professional architectural model making firms utilized.
It is strong and lightweight, but kind of expensive.
You can paint the finished ABS products with a broad range of colors.
Generally, during architectural model making process, ABS often is cut using by laser cutting machine.
It is efficient and the outputs can be held over 10 years.
Because of its high resolution character, and somewhat flexible, ABS is wildly used to making presentation architectural models.
Architectural hotel model made of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
C2.2.2: Acrylic Board and Perspex
Acrylic board for architectural model making comes in multiple thicknesses.
Its hardness and easy to machining feature make it easy to handle and cut.
However, it is expensive and needs certain architectural model making equipment to manipulate.
The architectural models made out of acrylic board or Perspex is quite stunning.
You can express your designs actually by providing the viewers amazing visual experience.
Architectural model made of Acrylic Board
Because of the nature of this architectural model making material, glue marks can be apparent around cutting lines and edges.
Transparent and translucent acrylic boards are often used to producing architectural model windows and building facades.
Keep in mind it is kind of complicated to make curved shapes as acrylic board needs to be polished, repeatedly.
Perspex is getting more and more popular in the architectural model making area recently.
It is similar to transparent acrylic but has a better effect.
And it has a perfect effect once you use it to make the water surface and match up with lighting.
You are able to find Perspex with different sizes and color, either transparent or semi-opaque, in most architectural model making craft stores.
Lots of model makers use Perspex to build architectural model buildings.
C2.2.3: PVC board
Architectural model made by PVC board
PVC board is most frequently used architectural model making materials in making main structures of the buildings.
It is cheap and easy to work with, and you can complete a PVC architectural model very quickly.
Considering PVC board has a limited choice of colors, it is more used for conceptual architectural model making.
Sometimes they are used to constructing terrains or model bases.
C2.3.1 Wood and Balsa wood
Just like cardboard and foam board, balsa board is an easy cutting and painting architectural model making material.
It can be used to create accurate architectural models.
Balsa wood has a fine finish and is available in various weights.
Most architectural model making hobby and DIY shops sell Balsa wood both in thin sheets and in sections.
Nonetheless, it is kind of expensive.
Balsa wood is one of the best materials to produce highly detailed structural architectural models.
Also, Balsa wood board is often used to make the pedestal for heavy architectural models.
And lots of timber constructions are made out of balsa strips to form the wooden trusses and building skeletons.
It is now the most popular wood product for architectural model making.
C2.3.2 Cork Sheets
Architectural model made by cork sheets
Cork sheet used for architectural model making has a very natural finish.
It is flexible but kind of breakable.
Therefore, it is not easy to cut, especially if you cut it parallel to grain.
In your architectural model making cutting stage, raw edges appear very often once you cut it along vertical texture, and you need to rub them with sandpaper.
It is ideal for modeling hilly sites of architectural models once you build a group of cork sheets up in layers.
C2.4.1 Card and Cardboard
Architectural model made by cardboard (Image from internet)
Cardboard is an architectural model making material to make the task of landscape.
It is easy for building conceptual and working architectural models.
Cardboard is cheap and has a versatile color, weight, and thickness and finish choice.
This architectural model making material is commonly used to produce architectural model roads and paths.
Terrains can be easily represented by building up layer upon layer of cardboard.
Grey cardboard is suitable to represent fair-faced concrete for its natural texture.
C2.4.2 Paper and Kraft paper
Massing model can be made by Kraft paper(Image from internet)
Kraft paper is a cheap and robust architectural model making material.
It is very easy to find and manipulate.
It can be used to present most buildings and structures, including some lake surface or some other special model sites.
Foam and polystyrene is basic architectural model making materials. (Image from internet)
They are relatively light in weight, thus easy to transport.
Foam is the most frequently used one as it is easy to cut and you can buy it at any craft shops.
It is an ideal architectural model making material to create conceptual architectural models as it is easy to cut and shaped.
But it is relatively fragile and easy to be damaged.
That’s why foam is more used to making conceptual models instead of presentation architectural models.
C2.5.1 Insulation Board
Interior model made of insulation board (Image from internet)
Insulation board is a light weight architectural model making material and easy to model with.
The drawback is it is not very strong and easy to be damaged.
It always crumbles on the architectural model edges.
You are able to build small-scale buildings using insulation board, but not in very detail, in a very short time.
The more common use of this architectural model making material is to build building walls of the interior architectural model.
C2.5.2 White Foam board
Villa model made of white foam(Image from internet)
White Foam board used for architectural model making has a variety of thickness.
3mm and 5mm white board are two most common types.
It has a lightweight property and is built strong and not very to dent and crush.
This kind of architectural model making material is often used for constructing architectural model bases and building walls.
C2.5.3 Foam sheets
Landscape model made of foam sheet (Image from internet)
Foam sheet comes in a wide range of weights, colors and thicknesses.
It is weighted light but pretty sturdy. Foam sheet can be simply cut with scissors.
This basic architectural model making material is very useful for making massing architectural models or topography, especially producing clean white context architectural model.
It is ideal for creating neat junctions and corners as well.
Thicker MDF is useful for making rigid architectural model bases.
MDF is an architectural model making material with a good finish and needs no sanding.
But is expensive and requires advanced architectural model manufacturing equipment, and you need to inspect for cutting and shaping it.
During architectural model making process, MDF is often used to produce large architectural models of buildings, in particular, when you want to showcase the interior layout.
City Planning Model made of Metal (Image from internet)
Metal is one kind of high standard architectural model making material, which needs model making machines to deal with.
It is expensive but has amazing displaying effects.
As metal has a variety choice of color and texture, it is often used to demonstrate architectural model building finishes.
The frequently-used metal sheet for architectural model making, including aluminum, brass, steel and copper sheets.
C2.8 Clay and Plasticine
Model made of Clay (Image from internet)
Clay is probably one of the cheapest architectural models making material by far.
It is soft, smooth, and rubbery and can be used to create any shapes.
But it is not ideal to produce very fine and sharp shaped architectural model.
Plasticine has better properties as it can remain workable even after exposure to the air for a long time.
However, it means that architectural models made out of this architectural model making material are not durable.
As it will shrink and crack with time, it is more used for making conceptual or working architectural models.
Also, clay and Plasticine are particularly useful for creating hills or steeply sloping and unique building shapes.
C2.9: Buying some premade architectural model making materials
Using premade architectural model making materials can be the finishing touch that helps you to elevate architectural model to a more professional level.
The online shop provides a wide range of premade model people, cars, street furniture and lighting, miniature figures and plants, etc.
You can also find them from the local Art & Craft shops.
Under most circumstances, you can use bags of course turf or flocking to create a grass cover effect.
Adding some landscaping elements in the later architectural model making stage, such as model plants and trees allows your architectural model look more vivid and natural.
The key point here is choosing the objects that conform to the architectural model scale that you used.
Otherwise, the completed architectural model will look distorted and absurd.
C2.10: Figure out where to get them
After you basically decide what architectural model making materials to use for your model, you need to think about how to get them.
Some architectural model components, such as model figures and trees, are not easy to shaped or modeled, or you have a relatively tight schedule.
Example of premade architectural model making materials, trees, people, etc.
You can approach them from architectural model making Art & Craft shops, or make an order online.
Also, an online shops such as Amazon and eBay, or dedicated websites like 4D Model Making Materials (see useful links below), provide you with more options.
These models making supplies websites have an abundant on-line catalog that assists you sourcing your required architectural model making material.
Moreover, you can always find unique items you couldn’t find in model stores, or purchase the objects you want with an affordable price.
Just Google ‘architectural model making materials’ and you will find plenty of choices.
C2.11: Deal with the architectural model making material properly
Of course, the most important thing to complete an excellent model is to cut, shape and assemble your model making material with accuracy and circumspection.
One trick here is using different textures or thickness of the same architectural model making material to achieve rich display effects.
Using the correct thickness can give your architectural model a much better sense of accuracy, as your model will have a satisfyingly high level of precision.
Try to be creative and make full use of reclaimed and leftover architectural model making materials, including unconventional architectural model making materials like fiber.
Remember to make sure all the architectural model making material you selected are sturdy enough. Otherwise, your hard work will be wasted.
Last but not least, make sure all the architectural model making material you used for completed product looks “comfortable” and “harmonious”.
3D Printing for Architectural Model Making
C3.1 What is 3D Printing
3D printing for architectural model making can show the architect’s design concept before it is built.
It presents better understanding and clarity for architects and developers and can discover the potential of certain issues that may occur in the project well in advance.
Complex and intricate architectural model making components, such as façade with multiple curvatures, folds, perforations, or structure with twisted and weaving elements, can now be produced easily and efficiently with 3D printing.
3D Printed Model which is designed by Zaha Hadid Architecture
This allows geometries that created by designers can be realized in a physical model to be presented to their client.
We see an increase in 3D printing model, especially with the new generation of designers who have very quickly embraced this technology thanks to its lower cost, faster turnaround time and quality assurance.
3D printing in some cases can reduce the cost of production as a result of shorter production time.
Traditionally, architectural model makers create components from material(s) to realize designers’ intent, whilst 3D printing can complete this task from the digital file to the finished object, eliminating wastage of material and saving manpower cost.
3D Printed Frame Model
Labor cost in the architectural modal making industry is consistently increasing.
3D printing can free up manpower and greatly reduce production costs.
3D printing technology can improve productivity.
Shorter architectural model making time allows designers more time to fine-tune their designs.
In comparison to the traditional way of model making, approximately 30% to 70% of time and cost savings can be achieved.
3D Printed Mosque Model
C 3.1 3D Printed Architectural Models by RJ Models
RJ Models has been in the model making business for more than 20 years and has been using 3D printing as soon as the technology was made accessible to the general public.
RJ Model has been producing 3D printing models for world-renowned architects such as Foster + Partners, Zaha Hadid Architect, KPF, SOM, OMA, etc.
Architectural Designers can send data to firstname.lastname@example.org and we will provide a price proposal within 24 hours.
You can enjoy our professional 3D printed architectural model making services, delivery, installation, and maintenance. RJ Models’ expertise can help designers save model making production time and costs.
C 3.2: The Price range of RJ Models 3D architectural models.
When 3D printing was first introduced, its cost was higher than traditional manufacturing process.
As the technology is now very mature, components can now be produced with minimal error, the end product is much more durable, and finishing is much desirable. This, as a result, offers very good value for money.
RJ Models charges approximately USD500 for a 3D printed model that measures 200mm x 100mm x 100mm.
3D Printed Architectural Model
This cost includes post-printing processes such as sanding, spray painting by professional model makers and worldwide delivery by a reputable courier company.
C3.3: Requirement of building design software programs for 3D Printed Architectural Model
RJ Models is also proficient at using the following software:
If you preferred software programs are not listed above, RJ Models can always find a way to turn your designs into a model.
UV Printing for Architectural Model Making
Architectural model making is an efficient way to exhibit and sell your design ideas.
How to make an impressive architectural model as quickly as possible are what most model makers looking for.
In recent years, the architectural model making area for architectural models using UV Printer is getting more and more popular.
UV Printer enable you to print directly onto materials for architectural model making(Image from internet)
That is mainly due to the features of UV Printers enable you to print directly onto materials like acrylic with record speed and incredible detail.
And all while maintaining the highest industry standards for environment friendly and responsible printing processes!
Even better, it is relatively time-saving and can enable you to access to any kinds of design.
C4.2: What is UV Printing
The UV printing market developed from single product decoration to various dizzying items as it helps the designers transform innovative ideas into reality.
Scale model makers around the world are following the trend of utilizing UV printing for architectural model making.
Generally, traditional printing is frequently-used to print on card mediums like papers.
The UV printing process is similar to traditional printing.
Technically, UV Printing is a modern digital printing method which utilizing UV (ultra-violet) lights to dry or cure ink as it is printed, and then coating once it hits the printing medium fit the printer.
Since the UV lights dry or cure any printed ink immediately, the dots of wet ink do not get a chance to spread out once printed, resulting in much finer detail for architectural model making.
Moreover, UV cured inks are weather-resistant and offer increased resistance to fading on the architectural model making material.
It can be used to print on almost all kinds of architectural model making, including plastic, cardboard, acrylic sheets, even the glass, aluminum or crystal surface, etc.
Example of wood can be used to print on its surface(Image from internet)
The most significant difference is the inks UV printers used and the curing process during the architectural model making procedure.
And more importantly, the superior outcomes UV printer produced.
Instead of solvent inks, UV printer uses environmentally friendly special inks such as UV light-curable ink for architectural model making.
These kinds of inks transform from pastes or solids to a liquid.
It is especially ideal to manufacture landscape, decorations, signage for different parts of architectural scale models.
UV Printer can let you print whatever you designed with flexibility and versatility efficiently for architectural model making.
With the help of high-intensity UV light for curing, inks dry immediately as soon as they are applied.
C4.4: How does UV Printing Benefit Architectural Model Making
UV Printing becomes an up-and-coming model making technique in architectural model making area because of its excellent printing capabilities.
You are able to make high precision, fine detail architectural models with the assistance of UV printers.
- The most significant advantage of UV Printing is its ability to print on a wide range of substrates.
Applications include almost all the architectural model making materials, such as plastics, wood, glass, metals, ceramics, textiles, etc.
Any items suit the UV printer size can be used. A state-of-art UV printer can print on substrates with a thickness up to 100-150mm.
- Time is money.
UV Printing can reduce the architectural model making time.
It is fast drying so you don’t need to wait for the ink to be out gassed.
That enables you to illustrate your design schemes efficiently and to strict deadlines.
UV Printing for the road of the architectural model making
- As UV printer is rich in vibrant colors, you can print diverse finish on architectural model making materials, including 3D texture.
To be specific, UV Printing can achieve metallic, stone, wood and gloss finish of architectural building facades or landscape.
UV Printing for the sport ground of the architectural model making
- Another major advantage is UV printed outputs are durable.
This makes the architectural model making to be great for presentation, sales events and exhibition.
C9.5: How to make a UV Printed architectural model
During on architectural model making process, 3D printer can print three-dimensional scale model purely.
Different from 3D printer, UV printer is commonly used to print various patterns and relief effects on different materials.
UV Printing for the pattern of ground for architectural model making
- You need to select the appropriate architectural model making material which can be further cut and engraved into your imaginative shapes.
- Or you can also complete the items first, and then print the texture you designed on it.
C4.6: Tips of UV Printing Application
C4.6.1: Use the UV Printer fairly often and maintain the equipment with special care
Different from traditional printers like lasers, UV Printer requires more attention.
Using scrap materials for testing first if you are a newbie.
In other words, it’s better if you use the printer every single day to keep the ink heads clear of clogs.
No matter you use it for on architectural model making, or other uses.
Before commencing your architectural model making UV printing process, make sure the parts you plan to print exactly in accordance with the designs.
Remember at least use the printer several times a week.
And you must be dedicated to maintaining the UV printer.
UV Printing is still young and fairly expensive.
It commands a higher price than laser products.
Inks and certain parts replacements are necessary. Just in case the dried ink will affect the architectural model making progress.
C4.6.2: Be careful with the inks
UV inks are harmful to your skin.Be especially careful to avoid the irritation from the inks.
Also, it is particularly important that you choose the right ink.
Tip here is using the stretchable ink for flexible materials.While scratch resistant ink is more suitable for rigid objects.
If you have any query, consulting UV printing specialists or find a professional architectural model making company to print for you.
Advances in architectural model making markets have led to the demands of producing great color gamut, high-level detail and quality models.
And UV printing has become a fast growing technique in architectural model making industry.
Obviously, UV Printing has already overtaken traditional printing techniques and will continue growing in popularity.
Not only does this technology speed up architectural model making process, but also enrich the kinds of printable items. .
In short, UV printing does what so many traditional printing techniques cannot.
It delivers brilliant design ideas quickly, with high quality and ultimate flexibility.
With UV printer, you can print anything on architectural model making materials as long as you can get it in the printer.
In the future, the application capabilities of UV Printing will continue to grow.
Meanwhile, the use of eco-friendly ink formulations and related materials, software process steps will be continuously optimized well.
More importantly, UV Printing technique will become more and more affordable as the architectural model making market matures.